The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was inspired by the success of the European Economic Community (1957-1993) in removing tariffs to stimulate trade among its members. Supporters argued that the creation of a free trade area in North America would bring prosperity through increased trade and production, resulting in the creation of millions of well-paying jobs in all participating countries. Negotiations were expected to be concluded by the end of 2014, but economist Hosuk Lee-Makiyama said there were at least four or five years of additional negotiations left by the end of the year.  In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the agreement unless the United States lifted the visa requirement for Bulgarian citizens.  TTIP is seeking a formal agreement that would “liberalize one-third of world trade” and, according to supporters, create millions of new paid jobs.  “Given that tariffs between the United States and the European Union are already low, the London-based Centre for Economic Policy Research estimates that 80% of the potential economic benefits of the TTIP agreement depend on reducing the double conflicts between EU and US rules on these and other regulatory issues, ranging from food safety to cars.”  A successful strategy (according to Thomas Bollyky of the Council on Foreign Relations and Anu Bradford of Columbia Law School) will focus on areas of activity where transatlantic trade laws and local regulations can often overlap, among other things. B pharmaceutical, agricultural and financial exchanges.  This ensures that the United States and Europe remain “standard producers and not standard takers” in the global economy, and will then ensure that producers around the world continue to tend to adopt common standards between the United States and the EU.  Documents published in May 2015 show that US negotiators put pressure on the EU over the proposed criteria for pesticides.
A number of pesticides containing endocrine chemicals have been banned in draft EU criteria. On 2 May 2013, US negotiators insisted that the EU abandon the criteria. They said there was a need for a risk-based regulatory approach. Later that day, Catherine Day (Secretary General of the European Commission) wrote to Karl Falkenberg (Director General of the Environment) calling for these criteria to be repealed.  Since 2015[update], 82 pesticides used in the United States have been banned in Europe and U.S. animal welfare standards are generally lower than in Europe.  In some circumstances, trade negotiations have been concluded with a trading partner, but have not yet been signed or ratified. This means that, although the negotiations are over, no part of the agreement is yet in force.